ACF set the URL when the page is selected and stores one of 2 things, one is a post ID when selecting a post and the other is the URL of an archive page.
I do not know if your filter will work in the case of a post ID, in this case ACF calls get_permalink() for the post.
In the second case ACF does not do anything, it just returns the value stored in the DB. In this case you would need to use an acf/format_value filter to alter the returned URL.
This is the only field available in ACF that I know of that will allow selecting archive pages. Beyond this you are looking at either building a custom field or building several custom filters for an existing field type,