There isn’t a reason to use ACF for something like this. The most recent posts of a post type can be done without ACF in WP using a query, there are many shortocde plugins that will do this. I’m not sure, but I’d guess that someones already built a block to do something similar with a CPT.
Of course you can… why would you think you would not? The rendering file, is actually a php file, so what do you think would stop you. From the plugin repository if you download the “ACF Blocks” – https://wordpress.org/plugins/acf-blocks/ there is a Post Block just to prove that it is possible.
The reason to use Gutenberg blocks as oppose to shortcodes are very obvious, besides, your customers will prefer to click things to work, as oppose to using shortcodes.