Just to clarify, taxonomies are a core part of WordPress, not of ACF.
Without ACF, you can create post types and taxonomies, relate them together and also render / query result on the front end.
In light of this, I can’t be of much help as this is a support forum for the ACF plugin.
I can however direct you to the WP website where you will find lots of docs outlining how to load a post’s taxonomy terms and how to query posts which have a taxonomy term selected:
Get the terms from a post:
WP_Query taxonomy params:
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