Yes, you can populate conditional logic, and you can even make it work across field groups, using the acf/load_field filter https://www.advancedcustomfields.com/resources/acf-load_field/
The best advice I can give you is to create a field group that has a select field with some example choices and some other fields that are conditional on those choices an then export that group to PHP to see what the settings are.
This cannot be done across field groups in the ACF admin, but it can be done with the acf/load_field filter because the conditional login is based on the field key. Your conditional logic will work as long as that field key is on the page. However, you must make sure it’s on the page because otherwise you might trigger some JS errors if ACF tries to find a field that does not exist.
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