The repeater field name is constructed by combining the parent field name (the repeater) the row index (yes it starts at 0) and the sub field name.
But even with this you can’t use the built in ACF shortcode. The reason is that the ACF shortcode will only work with basic fields that store simple text values and will not work for fields like image, nav menu, and many other fields that store values that need to be interpreted by ACF. For this type of thing you’re going to have to create your own shortcodes https://codex.wordpress.org/Shortcode_API
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