I’m a little confused about what your issue is, except that you said you are creating posts and inserting values using PHP. If you create a new post and add a new ACF value, then you need to use the field key when using update_field(). If you are inserting the values yourself using SQL, the you must also insert the field key reference shown in your DB image. With a new post, using the field name in update_field() does not create the field key reference, this is why editing a post and saving the value makes it work.
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