With core ACF you need to set the location of every post type. I have attached an image that shows this for posts and pages. If you have other post types then you would keep adding additional OR location rules.
Alternately you could create your own custom location rule https://www.advancedcustomfields.com/resources/custom-location-rules/. I have several examples of these I have created here https://github.com/Hube2/acf-filters-and-functions. I don’t have one for “All” post types, I’ve never seen a condition where I want something added to all post types. I do have one for “Public” post types https://github.com/Hube2/acf-filters-and-functions/blob/master/public-post-type-location-rule.php
The values for the fields are saved as WP postmeta values, not different than you would do using WP function like https://codex.wordpress.org/Function_Reference/add_post_meta
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