Natively the answer is no. There’s no way to do that.
However you could create your own plugin for this.
Create a custom admin page. In it you do a wp_query for all posts (or any post type) which contains the data you want to be able to edit. Output them as a table list with the inputs you need (this could get tricky if you have many different field types but if it’s just inputs, editors etc. it would be fairly simple. Then on posting your custom form table just do the logic necessary to update each posts information.
I think this would be a pretty great idea for a third party plugin. The biggest issue that I can think of is how to make it dynamic.. One would probably want to be able to set in some settings which field groups to do the wp_query on or maybe do it dynamically on the custom admin page before the wp_query even runs.
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